Fluorosis is a common problem in many parts of the world where a hard enamel of dental tissues is formed because of using an unusually high amount of fluoride during odontogenesis. The enamel formed in fluorosis is a weak, hypocalcified, porous and very unaesthetic collection of tissues.
Some dentists recommend bleaching in order to whiten the fluorosis stains, however, this does not guarantee a 100% result. The procedure to perform dental bleaching can be broken down into four steps:
1.Scrubbing the enamel in order to clean it from all sides.
2.Treating the enamel with Hydrochloric Acid (HCL).
3.Applying Sodium Hypochlorite.
4.Applying dental adhesives.
When a patient suffering from fluorosis stains asks his or her dentist about whitening of his or her teeth, the dentists are happy to convey the good news. Normally, a tooth is either grayish yellow, yellowish white, or grayish white, but very few people actually have such teeth. The reasons for discoloration of our natural teeth are improper brushing, aggressively brushing and extremely strong cleaning techniques. Food and beverages which are acidic in nature also contribute in the process of discoloration. Aging is also a factor that cannot be neglected in this regard, and this is the reason why old people have more yellowish teeth than the younger lot. Even people who have normal teeth are now inclined towards whitening their teeth in order to get the perfect smile. Since bleaching is the easiest, most common and the most cost-effective solution of getting a set of teeth close to perfect, many people are opting for it, and many dentists are conveniently recommending it to their patients to lighten discoloration.
In 1877, Chappel introduced the process of treating discoloration using oxalic acid. Later many variants of this process emerged using chlorine. In 1884, Harlan introduced Hydrogen Peroxide to treat discoloration. Many other bleaching techniques followed till now when modern technology is used to carry out bleaching.
The process of bleaching is relatively simply. Oxidation takes place using a bleaching agent, where this agent reacts with the enamel and take care of the discolored tissues. The intensity of bleaching highly depends upon the nature and depth of stain, and upon the fact that how deep the bleaching agent can penetrate and stay there long enough to remove rigid stains.
There are two types of discoloration – extrinsic and intrinsic. The extrinsic discoloration takes place due to the consumption of tobacco, tea, coffee, silver nitrate, iron tablets, chewing gum and excessive use of mouth washes. Intrinsic stains penetrate through the enamel and are stored within the dental structure. Examples are tetracycline, fluorosis stains, pulp necrosis, dentinogenesis imperfecta, etc.
It is generally observed that premolars and second molars are teeth that are mostly affected by discoloration. Then follow maxillary incisors, canines and the first molars. The mandibular incisors are the least discolored teeth.
The reason why flurosis stains appear may be different for different people. For some it is due to the overdose of fluoride in toothpaste, for others it may be the reason of fluoride contamination in water. The stains on the teeth depend upon the content of fluoride. Therefore, if we keep a check on the water we are drinking, fluorosis stains may never be a problem.