Before we come to salivary biomarkers we need to know what biomarkers really are. Biomarkers are the substance or a material used in the bio medicine to determine at what stage of biology a particular thing is. It shows what kind of chemical or pathological reactions a particular thing is undergoing and what effects those reactions are having on that subject. Most of us use biomarkers in our daily life without going to the doctor and without even knowing that these are the biomarkers. For example, we check and measure our blood pressure, pulse rate etc. almost daily or weekly, if not daily, and yet are unaware that these are biomarkers of our body. Blood pressure and pulse rate tell us how good our heart is working, what ratio of fat we are storing in etc.
Periodontal diseases are concerned with the teeth. There are many biomarkers for determining the periodontal diseases in a person. One such biomarker is bleeding on probing. With recent studies and researches, it has been known that bleeding on probing might not get accurate results every time. Then, there are other mechanisms and tests for determining the presence of any periodontal disease in a person. But these methods and tests are time taking. Moreover, if the dentist does not give good hygienic procedure to a particular test, the test comes out to be far too inaccurate. Due to the time consuming nature of these methods, dentist still prefer to use bleeding on probing technique on his patients.
There are different biomarkers for getting known of any disease present. These include saliva, serum, tissue biopsies etc. There are diagnostic kits also available but many dentists have reported some problems with these kits. Now, the salivary biomarkers are seen with a hope. Saliva is considered to be a biomarker that can provide precise results. Another benefit of using saliva as a biomarker is that it is not confined to only dental diagnosis but is also expanded to medical diagnosis as well. Researches and studies are still going on and there are numerous challenges involved as well. Moreover, there are many different diseases of dentistry. A person may have more than one periodontal diseases and it becomes a challenge for a single biomarker to diagnose them accurately. Therefore, along with salivary biomarkers, several other biomarkers are needed to be used in diagnosing different dental diseases.
There are different dental institutes and platforms that are researching on salivary biomarkers. They have established an independent body that works on salivary biomarkers alone. It has been known that the salivary biomarkers give good results in diagnosing the presence of oral cancer in a person. Most of the dental clinics have already started using salivary biomarkers for the detection of a patient’s oral condition as well as his hygienic and health condition as well. Researchers are optimist about salivary biomarkers and their future. They see salivary biomarkers as accurate mean to detect periodontal diseases with less effort and time.